LINK TO VIDEO Since the 1980s, Iran’s naval forces have been central to its asymmetric way of war. In addition to bolstering its deterrent posture by virtue of the threat they pose to oil exports and maritime traffic in the Gulf, they have played a central role in the counter-pressure campaign that Tehran launched in May 2019 against the U.S. maximum pressure policy. Because of the country’s geographic location, well-thought-out force-building effort, and creative operational tactics, its naval forces can punch far above their weight. Discussing this threat are: Michael Connell is the senior scientific analyst at the Center for Naval Analyses, director of its Iranian Studies Program, and former CNA field representative to U.S. NAVCENT headquarters in Bahrain. His published work includes studies of Iranian military doctrine and strategy. John Miller, a retired vice admiral in the U.S. Navy, most recently served as commander of the Fifth Fleet in Bahrain and head of NAVCENT. Currently, he is president of the Fozzie Miller Group and an associate fellow with the International Institute for Strategic Studies. Farzin Nadimi is an associate fellow with The Washington Institute who specializes in the security and defense affairs of Iran and the Gulf region. A native Persian speaker, he holds a PhD in Middle Eastern studies from the University of Manchester.