Dr. Jonathan Schanzer, senior vice president at the FDD think tank, and Noa Shusterman, research assistant and Israel-Palestinian Research Program coordinator at INSS, reassess Operation Guardian of the Walls and its ramifications for Israel, the United States, and the Palestinians, on the occasion of the publication of Dr. Schanzer’s book Gaza Conflict 2021: Hamas, Israel and 11 Days of War. What are the core problems that gave rise to this round of fighting? How was it regarded in the United States? How was the Palestinian sphere affected by the change of U.S. administration and by the new administration’s Middle East policy? What explains the difficulty in achieving long-term calm in the Egyptian-mediated contacts undertaken since the operation, and what policy might promote stability in the Gaza arena?